James Turner

Sex Chromosome Biology Laboratory

Males and females differ fundamentally in their sex chromosome make-up: females have two X chromosomes (XX), while males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome (XY). The sex chromosomes are highly enriched in genes functioning in germ cell and neural development, and they influence male-female differences in growth, behaviour and susceptibility to a variety of diseases, e.g. hypertension and cancer.

The imbalance in dosage for X genes between females and males also presents unique challenges for the developing embryo that are overcome by X chromosome inactivation - the silencing of one X chromosome in each female cell by the non-coding RNA Xist. Our lab studies the epigenetics, evolution and cell biology of the sex chromosomes from a variety of organisms, including mammals, in order to understand how these chromosomes influence human health and disease.

Previous work from our lab has shown that the mammalian X chromosome is dominated by genes involved in spermatogenesis, with around 18 per cent of all X-genes expressed in developing sperm. We have identified Rsx, an Xist-like RNA with features suggestive of a role in X chromosome inactivation in the second largest class of mammals, the metatherians. Our studies have also identified a surveillance mechanism, meiotic silencing, that inactivates genes on unpaired meiotic chromosomes, and is mediated by the DNA damage proteins BRCA1, ATR and histone H2AFX. This surveillance mechanism is likely to play a major role in the infertility phenotypes seen in patients with chromosome abnormalities.

 

Figure 1

Identification of Rsx, a non-coding RNA involved in metatherian X chromosome inactivation. Left: The Rsx RNA molecules (green) form a localised cloud in female opossum cells. Right: the area covered by the cloud is the inactive X chromosome, identified by enrichment for the inactivating histone mark H3K27me3 (red). (Click to view larger image)

Figure 2

An enrichment of multicopy male germ cell genes on the mouse X chromosome. The figure shows the positions and copy number of the multicopy genes on the X chromosome. These multicopy gene families form complex structures, as shown by sequence similarity plots at the top of the figure. (Click to view larger image)

Selected publications

Hélène Royo, Haydn Prosser, Yaroslava Ruzankina, Shantha K. Mahadevaiah, Jeffrey M. Cloutier, Marek Baumann, Tomoyuki Fukuda, Christer Höög, Attila Tóth, Dirk G. de Rooij, Allan Bradley, Eric J. Brown and James M.A. Turner (2013) ATR acts stage specifically to regulate multiple aspects of mammalian meiotic silencing. Genes and Development 27, 1484-1494

Grant, J; Mahadevaiah, SK; Khil, P; Sangrithi, MN; Royo, H; Duckworth, J; McCarrey, JR; VandeBerg, JL; Renfree, MB; Taylor, W; Elgar, G; Camerini-Otero, RD; Gilchrist, MJ and Turner, JM (2012) Rsx is a metatherian RNA with Xist-like properties in X-chromosome inactivation. Nature 487, 254-8 

Royo, H; Polikiewicz, G; Mahadevaiah, SK; Prosser, H; Mitchell, M; Bradley, A; de Rooij, DG; Burgoyne, PS and Turner, JMA (2010) Evidence that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation is essential for male fertility. Current Biology 20, 2117-2123

Mahadevaiah SK, Royo H, McCarrey JR, VandeBerg JL, Mackay S and Turner JM (2009) Key features of the X inactivation process are conserved between marsupials and eutherians. Current Biology 19, 1478-84

Burgoyne, PS; Mahadevaiah, SK and Turner, JMA (2009) The consequences of asynapsis for mammalian meiosis. Nature Reviews Genetics 10, 207-216

Mueller, JL; Mahadevaiah, SK; Park, PJ; Warburton, PE; Page, DC and Turner, JMA (2008) The mouse X chromosome is enriched for multicopy testis genes showing postmeiotic expression. Nature Genetics 40, 794-9

James Turner

james.turner@crick.ac.uk
+44 (0)20 379 61611