Caroline Hill carried out her PhD studies in Jean Thomas' laboratory at the University of Cambridge, UK. After receiving her PhD in 1989 she carried out postdoctoral studies in the same lab before moving to the Imperial Cancer Research Fund in London in 1991, working with Richard Treisman on the regulation of c-fos gene expression by growth factors.
In 1995 she was awarded a Royal Society University Research Fellowship to set up her own research lab at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, London, UK, working on signalling by TGF-β superfamily members in early vertebrate development and cancer. She moved to the Cancer Research UK London Research Institute (now part of the Francis Crick Institute) in 1998, to head the Developmental Signalling Laboratory. She was tenured in 2002.
She was elected to EMBO in 2002, to the Academia Europaea in 2013 and to the European Academy of Cancer Sciences in 2015.