After obtaining a PhD degree in the University of Paris VII in 1993, Dominique joined Professor John Dick's laboratory in Toronto, Canada, as a research fellow. While there, she worked on establishing an in vivo model to study human acute myeloid leukaemia and identified leukemic stem cells.
In 1998, she accepted a position as Group Leader at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research, in New Jersey and became Assistant Professor at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey.
In 2001, she moved to the Imperial Cancer Research Fund in London (now Cancer Research UK). In 2006, she became a Senior Group Leader at the charity's London Research Institute, which is now part of the Francis Crick Institute. Since August 2002, she has been Professor at the University College of London, division of Biosciences, and a Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Child Health.