Guillaume did his PhD on the physics of active gels and cell mechanics at the Institut Curie, Paris, in the group of Jean-François Joanny and Jacques Prost. He then went to the University of Michigan for a postdoc with David Lubensky on the regular arrangement of cone cells in the Zebrafish retinal epithelium.
He moved to the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems (MPI-PKS) in Dresden where he worked in collaboration with Ewa Paluch, Stephan Grill and Carl-Philip Heisenberg.
In 2011 Guillaume started his group at the MPI-PKS on the physics of the cytoskeleton, working on the physics of active matter and cell and tissue mechanics, in further collaboration with Frank Jülicher, Anne Classen, Suzanne Eaton, Caren Norden and Jérome Solon.
His group at the Crick works on developing quantitative approaches to describe physical processes in biology.