A molecular perspective of mammalian autophagosome biogenesis

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Autophagy is a highly conserved process and is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Autophagy occurs at a basal level in all cells, but it can be up-regulated during stress, starvation, or infection. Misregulation of autophagy has been linked to various disorders, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and immune diseases. Here, we discuss the essential proteins acting in the formation of an autophagosome, with a focus on the ULK and VPS34 kinase complexes, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate effector proteins, and the transmembrane autophagy-related protein ATG9. The function and regulation of these and other autophagy-related proteins acting during formation will be addressed, in particular during amino acid starvation.

Journal details

Volume 293
Issue number 15
Pages 5386-5395
Publication date