A paleogenomic reconstruction of the deep population history of the AndesMore about Open Access at the Crick
Authors listNathan Nakatsuka Iosif Lazaridis Chiara Barbieri Pontus Skoglund Nadin Rohland Swapan Mallick Cosimo Posth Kelly Harkins-Kinkaid Matthew Ferry Éadaoin Harney Megan Michel Kristin Stewardson Jannine Novak-Forst José M Capriles Marta Alfonso Durruty Karina Aranda Álvarez David Beresford-Jones Richard Burger Lauren Cadwallader Ricardo Fujita Johny Isla George Lau Carlos Lémuz Aguirre Steven LeBlanc Sergio Calla Maldonado Frank Meddens Pablo G Messineo Brendan J Culleton Thomas K Harper Jeffrey Quilter Gustavo Politis Kurt Rademaker Markus Reindel Mario Rivera Lucy Salazar José R Sandoval Calogero M Santoro Nahuel Scheifler Vivien Standen Maria Ines Barreto Isabel Flores Espinoza Elsa Tomasto-Cagigao Guido Valverde Douglas J Kennett Alan Cooper Johannes Krause Wolfgang Haak Bastien Llamas David Reich Lars Fehren-Schmitz
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There are many unanswered questions about the population history of the Central and South Central Andes, particularly regarding the impact of large-scale societies, such as the Moche, Wari, Tiwanaku, and Inca. We assembled genome-wide data on 89 individuals dating from ∼9,000-500 years ago (BP), with a particular focus on the period of the rise and fall of state societies. Today's genetic structure began to develop by 5,800 BP, followed by bi-directional gene flow between the North and South Highlands, and between the Highlands and Coast. We detect minimal admixture among neighboring groups between ∼2,000-500 BP, although we do detect cosmopolitanism (people of diverse ancestries living side-by-side) in the heartlands of the Tiwanaku and Inca polities. We also highlight cases of long-range mobility connecting the Andes to Argentina and the Northwest Andes to the Amazon Basin. VIDEO ABSTRACT.