A paleogenomic reconstruction of the deep population history of the Andes
Authors listNathan Nakatsuka Iosif Lazaridis Chiara Barbieri Pontus Skoglund Nadin Rohland Swapan Mallick Cosimo Posth Kelly Harkins-Kinkaid Matthew Ferry Éadaoin Harney Megan Michel Kristin Stewardson Jannine Novak-Forst José M Capriles Marta Alfonso Durruty Karina Aranda Álvarez David Beresford-Jones Richard Burger Lauren Cadwallader Ricardo Fujita Johny Isla George Lau Carlos Lémuz Aguirre Steven LeBlanc Sergio Calla Maldonado Frank Meddens Pablo G Messineo Brendan J Culleton Thomas K Harper Jeffrey Quilter Gustavo Politis Kurt Rademaker Markus Reindel Mario Rivera Lucy Salazar José R Sandoval Calogero M Santoro Nahuel Scheifler Vivien Standen Maria Ines Barreto Isabel Flores Espinoza Elsa Tomasto-Cagigao Guido Valverde Douglas J Kennett Alan Cooper Johannes Krause Wolfgang Haak Bastien Llamas David Reich Lars Fehren-Schmitz
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There are many unanswered questions about the population history of the Central and South Central Andes, particularly regarding the impact of large-scale societies, such as the Moche, Wari, Tiwanaku, and Inca. We assembled genome-wide data on 89 individuals dating from ∼9,000-500 years ago (BP), with a particular focus on the period of the rise and fall of state societies. Today's genetic structure began to develop by 5,800 BP, followed by bi-directional gene flow between the North and South Highlands, and between the Highlands and Coast. We detect minimal admixture among neighboring groups between ∼2,000-500 BP, although we do detect cosmopolitanism (people of diverse ancestries living side-by-side) in the heartlands of the Tiwanaku and Inca polities. We also highlight cases of long-range mobility connecting the Andes to Argentina and the Northwest Andes to the Amazon Basin. VIDEO ABSTRACT.