A quantitative and spatial analysis of cell cycle regulators during the fission yeast cycleMore about Open Access at the Crick
Authors listScott Curran Gautam Dey Paul Rees Paul Nurse
We have carried out a systems-level analysis of the spatial and temporal dynamics of cell cycle regulators in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In a comprehensive single-cell analysis, we have precisely quantified the levels of 38 proteins previously identified as regulators of the G2 to mitosis transition and of 7 proteins acting at the G1- to S-phase transition. Only 2 of the 38 mitotic regulators exhibit changes in concentration at the whole-cell level: the mitotic B-type cyclin Cdc13, which accumulates continually throughout the cell cycle, and the regulatory phosphatase Cdc25, which exhibits a complex cell cycle pattern. Both proteins show similar patterns of change within the nucleus as in the whole cell but at higher concentrations. In addition, the concentrations of the major fission yeast cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) Cdc2, the CDK regulator Suc1, and the inhibitory kinase Wee1 also increase in the nucleus, peaking at mitotic onset, but are constant in the whole cell. The significant increase in concentration with size for Cdc13 supports the view that mitotic B-type cyclin accumulation could act as a cell size sensor. We propose a two-step process for the control of mitosis. First, Cdc13 accumulates in a size-dependent manner, which drives increasing CDK activity. Second, from mid-G2, the increasing nuclear accumulation of Cdc25 and the counteracting Wee1 introduce a bistability switch that results in a rapid rise of CDK activity at the end of G2 and thus, brings about an orderly progression into mitosis.
Issue number 36