A structural model of a P450-ferredoxin complex from orientation-selective double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy
Authors listAlice M Bowen Eachan Johnson Francesco Mercuri Nicola J Hoskins Ruihong Qiao James SO McCullagh Janet E Lovett Stephen G Bell Weihong Zhou Christiane R Timmel Luet Lok Wong Jeffrey R Harmer
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases catalyze the oxidation of chemically inert carbon-hydrogen bonds in diverse endogenous and exogenous organic compounds by atmospheric oxygen. This C-H bond oxy-functionalization activity has huge potential in biotechnological applications. Class I CYPs receive the two electrons required for oxygen activation from NAD(P)H via a ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin. The interaction of Class I CYPs with their cognate ferredoxin is specific. In order to reconstitute the activity of diverse CYPs, structural characterization of CYP-ferredoxin complexes is necessary, but little structural information is available. Here we report a structural model of such a complex (CYP199A2-HaPux) in frozen solution derived from distance and orientation restraints gathered by the EPR technique of orientation-selective double electron-electron resonance (os-DEER). The long-lived oscillations in the os-DEER spectra were well modeled by a single orientation of the CYP199A2-HaPux complex. The structure is different from the two known Class I CYP-Fdx structures: CYP11A1-Adx and CYP101A1-Pdx. At the protein interface, HaPux residues in the [Fe2S2] cluster-binding loop and the α3 helix and the C-terminus residue interact with CYP199A2 residues in the proximal loop and the C helix. These residue contacts are consistent with biochemical data on CYP199A2-ferredoxin binding and electron transfer. Electron-tunneling calculations indicate an efficient electron-transfer pathway from the [Fe2S2] cluster to the heme. This new structural model of a CYP-Fdx complex provides the basis for tailoring CYP enzymes for which the cognate ferredoxin is not known, to accept electrons from HaPux and display monooxygenase activity.