ARPC5 isoforms and their regulation by calcium-calmodulin-N-WASP drive distinct Arp2/3-dependent actin remodeling events in CD4 T cells

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CD4 T cell activation induces nuclear and cytoplasmic actin polymerization via the Arp2/3 complex to activate cytokine expression and strengthen T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Actin polymerization dynamics and filament morphology differ between nucleus and cytoplasm. However, it is unclear how the Arp2/3 complex mediates distinct nuclear and cytoplasmic actin polymerization in response to a common stimulus. In humans, the ARP3, ARPC1, and ARPC5 subunits of the Arp2/3 complex exist as two different isoforms, resulting in complexes with different properties. Here, we show that the Arp2/3 subunit isoforms ARPC5 and ARPC5L play a central role in coordinating distinct actin polymerization events in CD4 T cells. While ARPC5L is heterogeneously expressed in individual CD4 T cells, it specifically drives nuclear actin polymerization upon T cell activation. In contrast, ARPC5 is evenly expressed in CD4 T cell populations and is required for cytoplasmic actin dynamics. Interestingly, nuclear actin polymerization triggered by a different stimulus, DNA replication stress, specifically requires ARPC5 but not ARPC5L. TCR signaling but not DNA replication stress induces nuclear actin polymerization via nuclear calcium-calmodulin signaling and N-WASP. Diversity in the molecular properties and individual expression patterns of ARPC5 subunit isoforms thus tailors Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization to different physiological stimuli.

Journal details

Journal eLife
Volume 12
Pages e82450
Available online
Publication date