Cancer origin tracing and timing in two high-risk prostate cancers using multisample whole genome analysis: prospects for personalized medicineMore about Open Access at the Crick
Authors listAnssi Nurminen Serafiina Jaatinen Sinja Taavitsainen Gunilla Högnäs Tom Lesluyes Naser Ansari-Pour Teemu Tolonen Kerstin Haase Antti Koskenalho Matti Kankainen Juho Jasu Hanna Rauhala Jenni Kesäniemi Tiia Nikupaavola Paula Kujala Irina Rinta-Kiikka Jarno Riikonen Antti Kaipia Teemu Murtola Teuvo L Tammela Tapio Visakorpi Matti Nykter David C Wedge Peter Van Loo G Steven Bova
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PrCa) genomic heterogeneity causes resistance to therapies such as androgen deprivation. Such heterogeneity can be deciphered in the context of evolutionary principles, but current clinical trials do not include evolution as an essential feature. Whether or not analysis of genomic data in an evolutionary context in primary prostate cancer can provide unique added value in the research and clinical domains remains an open question. METHODS: We used novel processing techniques to obtain whole genome data together with 3D anatomic and histomorphologic analysis in two men (GP5 and GP12) with high-risk PrCa undergoing radical prostatectomy. A total of 22 whole genome-sequenced sites (16 primary cancer foci and 6 lymph node metastatic) were analyzed using evolutionary reconstruction tools and spatio-evolutionary models. Probability models were used to trace spatial and chronological origins of the primary tumor and metastases, chart their genetic drivers, and distinguish metastatic and non-metastatic subclones. RESULTS: In patient GP5, CDK12 inactivation was among the first mutations, leading to a PrCa tandem duplicator phenotype and initiating the cancer around age 50, followed by rapid cancer evolution after age 57, and metastasis around age 59, 5 years prior to prostatectomy. In patient GP12, accelerated cancer progression was detected after age 54, and metastasis occurred around age 56, 3 years prior to prostatectomy. Multiple metastasis-originating events were identified in each patient and tracked anatomically. Metastasis from prostate to lymph nodes occurred strictly ipsilaterally in all 12 detected events. In this pilot, metastatic subclone content analysis appears to substantially enhance the identification of key drivers. Evolutionary analysis' potential impact on therapy selection appears positive in these pilot cases. CONCLUSIONS: PrCa evolutionary analysis allows tracking of anatomic site of origin, timing of cancer origin and spread, and distinction of metastatic-capable from non-metastatic subclones. This enables better identification of actionable targets for therapy. If extended to larger cohorts, it appears likely that similar analyses could add substantial biological insight and clinically relevant value.
Journal Genome Medicine
Issue number 1