Eosinophils are an essential element of a type 2 immune axis that controls thymus regeneration

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Therapeutic interventions used for cancer treatment provoke thymus damage and limit the recovery of protective immunity. Here, we show that eosinophils are an essential part of an intrathymic type 2 immune network that enables thymus recovery after ablative therapy. Within hours of damage, the thymus undergoes CCR3-dependent colonization by peripheral eosinophils, which reestablishes the epithelial microenvironments that control thymopoiesis. Eosinophil regulation of thymus regeneration occurs via the concerted action of NKT cells that trigger CCL11 production via IL4 receptor signaling in thymic stroma, and ILC2 that represent an intrathymic source of IL5, a cytokine that therapeutically boosts thymus regeneration after damage. Collectively, our findings identify an intrathymic network composed of multiple innate immune cells that restores thymus function during reestablishment of the adaptive immune system.

Journal details

Volume 7
Issue number 69
Pages eabn3286
Available online
Publication date