Evidence for evolutionary divergence of activity-dependent gene expression in developing neuronsMore about Open Access at the Crick
Authors listJing Qiu Jamie McQueen Bilada Bilican Owen Dando Dario Magnani Karolina Punovuori Bhuvaneish T Selvaraj Matthew Livesey Ghazal Haghi Samuel Heron Karen Burr Rickie Patani Rinku Rajan Olivia Sheppard Peter C Kind T Ian Simpson Victor Tybulewicz David JA Wyllie Elizabeth MC Fisher Sally Lowell Siddharthan Chandran Giles E Hardingham
Evolutionary differences in gene regulation between humans and lower mammalian experimental systems are incompletely understood, a potential translational obstacle that is challenging to surmount in neurons, where primary tissue availability is poor. Rodent-based studies show that activity-dependent transcriptional programs mediate myriad functions in neuronal development, but the extent of their conservation in human neurons is unknown. We compared activity-dependent transcriptional responses in developing human stem cell-derived cortical neurons with those induced in developing primary- or stem cell-derived mouse cortical neurons. While activity-dependent gene-responsiveness showed little dependence on developmental stage or origin (primary tissue vs. stem cell), notable species-dependent differences were observed. Moreover, differential species-specific gene ortholog regulation was recapitulated in aneuploid mouse neurons carrying human chromosome-21, implicating promoter/enhancer sequence divergence as a factor, including human-specific activity-responsive AP-1 sites. These findings support the use of human neuronal systems for probing transcriptional responses to physiological stimuli or indeed pharmaceutical agents.