Fluorescence fluctuation-based super-resolution microscopy: Basic concepts for an easy start

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Due to the wave nature of light, optical microscopy has a lower-bound lateral resolution limit of approximately half of the wavelength of visible light, i.e., within the range of 200 to 350 nm. Fluorescence Fluctuation based Super Resolution Microscopy (FF-SRM) is a term used to encompass a collection of image analysis techniques which rely on the statistical processing of temporal variations of the fluorescence signal. FF-SRM aims to reduce the uncertainty of the location of fluorophores within an image, often improving spatial resolution to several tens of nanometers. FF-SRM is suitable for live-cell imaging due to its compatibility with most fluorescent probes and relatively simple instrumental and experimental requirements, which are mostly camera-based epifluorescence instruments. Each FF-SRM approach has strengths and weaknesses, which depend directly on the underlying statistical principles through which enhanced spatial resolution is achieved. In this review, the basic concepts and principles behind a range of FF-SRM methods published to date are described. Their operational parameters are explained and guidance for its selection is provided. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Volume 288
Issue number 3
Pages 218-241
Available online
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