M. tuberculosis infection of human iPSC-derived macrophages reveals complex membrane dynamics during xenophagy evasion

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Xenophagy is an important cellular defence mechanism against cytosol invading pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Activation of xenophagy in macrophages targets Mtb to autophagosomes, however how Mtb is targeted to autophagosomes in human macrophages at a high spatial and temporal resolution is unknown. Here, we use human induced pluripotent stem cell derived macrophages (iPSDM) to study the human macrophage response to Mtb infection induced by the ESX-1 Type-VII secretion system. Using RNA-seq, we identify ESX-1 dependent transcriptional responses in iPSDM after infection with Mtb. This analysis revealed differential inflammatory responses and dysregulated pathways such as Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 (eIF2) signalling and protein ubiquitination. Moreover, live cell imaging revealed that Mtb infection in human macrophages induces dynamic ESX-1-dependent, LC3B positive tubulovesicular autophagosomes (LC3-TVS). Through a correlative live cell/FIB SEM approach, we show that upon phagosomal rupture Mtb induces the formation of LC3-TVS, from which it is able to escape to reside in the cytosol. Thus, iPSDM represent a valuable model for studying spatiotemporal dynamics of human macrophage-Mtb interactions and that Mtb is able to evade capture by autophagic compartments.

Journal details

Volume 134
Issue number 5
Pages jcs252973
Available online
Publication date