Rifampicin resistance and mortality in patients hospitalised with HIV-associated tuberculosisMore about Open Access at the Crick
Authors listRuan Spies Charlotte Schutz Amy Ward Avuyonke Balfour Muki Shey Mark Nicol Rosie Burton Bianca Sossen Robert Wilkinson David Barr Graeme Meintjes
Background: Patients with HIV and drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) are at high risk of death.Objectives: We investigated the association between rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) and mortality in a cohort of patients who were admitted to hospital at the time of TB diagnosis.
Method: Adults hospitalised at Khayelitsha Hospital and diagnosed with HIV-associated TB during admission, were enrolled between 2013 and 2016. Clinical, biochemical and microbiological data were prospectively collected and participants were followed up for 12 weeks.
Results: Participants with microbiologically confirmed TB (n = 482) were enrolled a median of two days (interquartile range [IQR]: 1–3 days) following admission. Fifty-three participants (11.0%) had RR-TB. Participants with rifampicin-susceptible TB (RS-TB) received appropriate treatment a median of one day (IQR: 1–2 days) following enrolment compared to three days (IQR: 1–9 days) in participants with RR-TB. Eight participants with RS-TB (1.9%) and six participants with RR-TB (11.3%) died prior to the initiation of appropriate treatment. Mortality at 12 weeks was 87/429 (20.3%) in the RS-TB group and 21/53 (39.6%) in the RR-TB group. RR-TB was a significant predictor of 12-week mortality (hazard ratio: 1.88; 95% confidence interval: 1.07–3.29; P = 0.03).
Conclusion: Mortality at 12 weeks in participants with RR-TB was high compared to participants with RS-TB. Delays in the initiation of appropriate treatment and poorer regimen efficacy are proposed as contributors to higher mortality in hospitalised patients with HIV and RR-TB.
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