RNA sensing via the RIG-I-like receptor LGP2 is essential for the induction of a type I IFN response in ADAR1 deficiency

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RNA editing by the adenosine deaminase ADAR1 prevents innate immune responses to endogenous RNAs. In ADAR1-deficient cells, unedited self RNAs form base-paired structures that resemble viral RNAs and inadvertently activate the cytosolic RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) MDA5, leading to an antiviral type I interferon (IFN) response. Mutations in ADAR1 cause Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome (AGS), an autoinflammatory syndrome characterized by chronic type I IFN production. Conversely, ADAR1 loss and the consequent type I IFN production restricts tumor growth and potentiates the activity of some chemotherapeutics. Here, we show that another RIG-I-like receptor, LGP2, also has an essential role in the induction of a type I IFN response in ADAR1-deficient human cells. This requires the canonical function of LGP2 as an RNA sensor and facilitator of MDA5-dependent signaling. Furthermore, we show that the sensitivity of tumor cells to ADAR1 loss requires LGP2 expression. Finally, type I IFN induction in tumor cells depleted of ADAR1 and treated with some chemotherapeutics fully depends on LGP2 expression. These findings highlight a central role for LGP2 in self RNA sensing with important clinical implications.

Journal details

Volume 41
Issue number 6
Pages e109760
Available online
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