The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndromeMore about Open Access at the Crick
Authors listAnnette Karmiloff-Smith Tamara Al-Janabi Hana D'Souza Jurgen Groet Esha Massand Kin Mok Carla Startin Elizabeth Fisher John Hardy Dean Nizetic Victor Tybulewicz Andre Strydom
In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome (DS) still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description. We argue that, in the context of significant increases in DS life expectancy, a focus on individual differences in trisomy 21 at all levels-genetic, cellular, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and environmental-constitutes one of the best approaches for understanding genotype/phenotype relations in DS and for exploring risk and protective factors for Alzheimer's disease in this high-risk population.
Pages pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-389