The regulation of IL-10 expression
Authors listLeona Gabryšová Ashleigh Howes Margarida Saraiva Anne O'Garra
Interleukin (IL)-10 is an important immunoregulatory cytokine and an understanding of how IL-10 expression is controlled is critical in the design of immune intervention strategies. IL-10 is produced by almost all cell types within the innate (including macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and natural killer cells) and adaptive (including CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells and B cells) immune systems. The mechanisms of IL-10 regulation operate at several stages including chromatin remodelling at the Il10 locus, transcriptional regulation of Il10 expression and post-transcriptional regulation of Il10 mRNA. In addition, whereas some aspects of Il10 gene regulation are conserved between different immune cell types, several are cell type- or stimulus-specific. Here, we outline the complexity of IL-10 production by discussing what is known about its regulation in macrophages, monocytes, DCs and CD4(+) T helper cells.