Scientists are always looking for patterns. Sometimes they're looking in really small things like cells in a body, and sometimes they're looking in really big things like stars in the sky.
Constellations are patterns that people have found in groups of stars. For thousands have years, people from different cultures all over the world have seen these patterns and created stories from them. Even though they are made up patterns, they have helped people track time, sail across seas and record amazing events like comets. Today's scientists who study space, called astronomers, use them to spot which stars are which.
Find out how to make your own constellation viewer, shine constellations inside and even design some of your own.
What you'll need
A cardboard tube
Like one you find in the middle of a kitchen towel roll or toilet paper roll
Things to decorate your cardboard
Such as paint, coloured paper, stickers, felt tip pens, crayons, glitter – the possibilities are endless!
Paper or card
A pin or a sharp pencil
A rubber band or hairband
Find out more about constellations from different cultures!
What you'll need
Decorate the outside of your cardboard tube however you like
... with stars? Planets? Maybe something completely different!
Create constellation patterns
To create your constellation patterns, print out these designs showing constellations from around the world.
Or, make your own designs
If you want to make your own designs instead, you'll need to draw around the end of your tube on the piece of paper, and draw a design inside the circle. Constellations are normally drawn as a group of dots that represent the stars, joined together by lines to make the picture.
Draw another circle
Draw another bigger circle around your design, making sure that it's about 2cm bigger than your first circle all the way around - it doesn't need to be exact!
Use scissors to cut out each of the patterns
If you've made your own, you'll need to cut around the larger circle, then make four small cuts from the outside to the smaller circle at the top, bottom, left and right, like points on a compass.
Make holes where the stars are
On each constellation pattern, use a pin or sharp pencil to poke a small hole where each star is - ask a grown up to help you with this bit!
Putting it all together
Put your pattern on top of your tube with the constellation inside, fold the tabs down outside the tube and hold the paper in place using an elastic band or hair tie.
To use your star viewer...
To use your star viewer, hold it up to your eye and look at the light coming through the holes. You will see the outline of each star pattern as it would appear in a clear sky at night.
You can also use the star viewer to shine the pattern of stars on the wall of a dark room. Hold a light (like a phone) to the open end of the tube and point the pattern a
Star viewer pictures
Decorate your constellation viewer with stars, planets or something completely different.
You can use our designs, draw your own versions, or make up your own constellations.
It's a good idea to put something behind the paper when you're punching out the holes.
Hold the star viewer near a light to see what the stars would look like on a clear night!
Etch a cell
Some scientists use telescopes to help them look at patterns like constellations in the night sky.
Scientists at the Francis Crick Institute use microscopes to help them look for patterns in things that are too small to see with the naked eye, like cells, bacteria and viruses.
If you want to have a go at looking through some of our microscopes, you can see pictures that our electron microscopy team have taken in Etch a Cell. Etch a Cell is a project where you can help the team at the Crick by analysing and labelling our pictures. Have a go at drawing around the cell's nucleus or mitochondria and keep an eye on the site to see when they'll be adding new projects.